The Formula 1 car construction and used materials are strictly controlled by the rules in order to maximize driver’s safety.
The main structure of the car’s survival cell which contains the cockpit and flexible fuel cell, which is located directly behind the driver (but separated from him).
This safety cell must meet the minimum size requirements and must have a structure for impact energy absorption in front of it. The design of the car must have an additional absorbing structure at the rear, behind the gearbox, and on the flanks of the car.
Both sides of the survival cell must have two anti-intrusion panels made from special material named Zylon which absorbs impact energy, one from the bottom of the chassis and one at the driver’s head height.
The car must have two protective structure in the event of a roll. One must be directly behind the driver’s head, and the other at the front of the cockpit.
The car and the safety cell must pass several stringent crash tests, rollover and static load before the car not on track.
FIA F1 2017. technical regulations can be downloaded here.