Formula 1 car must have a conventional sprung suspension. It is forbidden to use any system, such as active suspension, which changes the suspension or its geometry while the car is moving.

Interconnected suspension systems (e.g. FRIC, Front and Rear InterConnected) are forbidden – response of front suspension must be result only from changes in load on the front wheels and response of rear suspension must be result only from changes in load on the rear wheels. Interconnected systems are banned prior the Hungarian GP 2014.

Suspension elements must have a symmetrical profile for the majority of their length to prevent engineers to (over)use them in aerodynamic purposes.

Each wheel must be fastened to the car with two tethers each located within a separate suspension element with its own attachments at either end.

The tethers must meet specific tensile strength and stop the wheels coming loose from the car.

Power steering systems are allowed, but must not be electronically controlled or powered. Four-wheel steering is not allowed. The steering wheel, steering column and steering rack all have to pass an FIA impact tests.

2022 FIA F1 Technical Regulations

10.2.1 Cars must be fitted with sprung suspension.

10.2.2 The suspension system of each axle (front and rear) must be independent from the other axle and so arranged that its response results only from changes in load applied to the wheels of that axle.

10.2.3 The suspension system comprises of:

a. Outboard suspension: the suspension members connecting the uprights to the sprung mass, the upright and attachments, the wheel axles and bearings, wheel fasteners and the complete wheels.
b. Inboard suspension: the mechanical arrangement of the components that provide the vertical suspension travel response of the suspension system to the changes in load applied to the wheels.
The inboard suspension is considered to be part of the sprung mass, whereas the outboard suspension is considered to be part of the unsprung mass.

10.2.4 Any powered device which is capable of altering the configuration or affecting the performance of any part of any suspension system is forbidden.

10.2.5 No adjustment may be made to any suspension system while the car is in motion.

Steering systems

10.5.1 The steering system is the mechanical system, on and part of the sprung mass, that converts the steering column demand into the outboard suspension position control for the re-alignment of only the two front wheels (the steered wheels).

10.5.2 The re-alignment of the steered wheels must be uniquely defined by a monotonic function of the rotation of a single steering wheel about a single axis. Furthermore, the inboard attachment points of the suspensions members connected to the steering system must remain a fixed distance from each other and can only translate in Y.

10.5.3 Power assisted steering systems may not be electronically controlled or electrically powered. No such system may carry out any function other than reduce the physical effort required to steer the car.

10.5.4 No part of the steering wheel or column, nor any part fitted to them, may be closer to the driver than a plane formed by the entire rear edge of the steering wheel rim. All parts fixed to the steering wheel must be fitted in such a way as to minimise the risk of injury in the event of a driver’s head making contact with any part of the wheel assembly.

10.5.5 The steering wheel, steering column and steering rack assembly must pass an impact test, details of the test procedure may be found in Article 13.8.

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